Under what situations would the U.S. issue a PPQ form 579 (re-export phytosanitary certificate)?
If Canadian-produced grain enters the commerce of the U.S. with a Canadian Phytosanitary Certificate, APHIS will issue a 579 re-export phytosanitary certificate (without further physical inspection) if the following conditions are met: 1) the grain originally had a Canadian phyto certificate; 2) identity of grain has been maintained; 3) the consignment has not been subject to infestation; and 4) the commodity has not been processed to change its physical nature. APHIS may also be able to issue a 579, even if one of these four conditions is not met, provided the grain can be demonstrated to comply with the importing country requirements. This sometimes necessitates activities in the U.S., such as fumigation or physical inspection of the grain. If it arises that the destination country requirements include requirements such as grain being originated from pest-free production areas, APHIS will not issue a 579 because the origination could not be demonstrated.